This highlights the role of other important factors that can contribute to the effect of hydrogen peroxide and the acidity in the antibacterial activity of honey [12]. To illustrate this, Lachman et al., evaluated the total polyphenol content of honey varieties harvested in the period from May to August 2006 and found the highest TP acid content occurred in the honey collected at the beginning of June (on average 170.21 mg/Kg) and July (on average 163.32 mg/Kg), whereas it was much lower in samples (83.60 mg/Kg) collected during the other months [53]. Of these, 43% of honey samples showed excellent anti S. aureus activity. Also, honey was active against biofilms formed by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with bactericidal rates ranging from 63–82%, 73–63%, and 91–91%, respectively, that was higher than the effect of commonly used single antibiotics commonly used [78]. MIC is used to determine the in vitro activity of an antibacterial substance and can be defined as the lowest concentration of an antibacterial agent that will inhibit the visible growth of microorganisms after an overnight incubation [31]. 2.5 Preservation of honey 2.6 Properties and active ingredient of honey 2.7 Mode of action of some antibacterial substance present in honey 2.8 Clinical conditions for treatment with honey 2.9 Honey as an antimicrobial agent 2.10 Practical consideration for the clinical use of honey 2.11 Adverse reaction of honey 2.12 Research on honey. Due to its sensitivity, the broth microdilution assay, where inhibition of bacterial growth is determined spectrophotometrically, is the most appropriate method. Copyright © 2019 Najla A. Albaridi. These phenolic acids included protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, and benzoic acid. The researcher identifies the antibacterial properties of honey with isolated compounds derived from honey, selected antibiotics. This was supported by another study in which solutions of pasture honey 25% (w/v) showed no detectable antibacterial activity in the presence of catalase but an activity equivalent to 14.8% phenol without catalase, whereas the same solution of Manuka honey had activity equivalent to 13.2% with and without catalase [36]. None of the samples was active at 1%, whereas all samples had inhibitory effects on the growth of E. coli and P. aeruginosa at 2.5% (w/v). Antibacterial effects of honey – experiment, Published 30 May 2008, Updated 28 May 2015. A. Imlay and S. Linn, “Bimodal pattern of killing of DNA-repair-defective or anoxically grown, K. Brudzynski, “Effect of hydrogen peroxide on antibacterial activities of Canadian honeys,”, D. Adcock, “The effect of catalase on the inhibine and peroxide values of various honeys,”, K. Brudzynski, K. Abubaker, and D. Miotto, “Unraveling a mechanism of honey antibacterial action: polyphenol/H, H. A. L. Wahdan, “Causes of the antimicrobial activity of honey,”, J. Lachman, M. Orsák, A. Hejtmánková, and E. Kovářová, “Evaluation of antioxidant activity and total phenolics of selected Czech honeys,”, J. M. Stephens, R. C. Schlothauer, B. D. Morris et al., “Phenolic compounds and methylglyoxal in some New Zealand manuka and kanuka honeys,”, I. C. F. R. Ferreira, E. Aires, J. C. M. Barreira, and L. M. Estevinho, “Antioxidant activity of Portuguese honey samples: different contributions of the entire honey and phenolic extract,”, M. Biesaga and K. Pyrzynska, “Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry studies of the phenolic compounds in honey,”, L. Yaoa, Y. Jiang, R. Singanusong, N. Datta, and K. Raymont, “Phenolic acids in Australian Melaleuca, Guioa, Lophostemon, Banksia and Helianthus honeys and their potential for floral authentication,”, R. J. Weston, L. K. Brocklebank, and Y. Lu, “Identification and quantitative levels of antibacterial components of some New Zealand Manuka honeys,”, R. J. Weston, K. R. Mitchell, and K. L. Allen, “Antibacterial phenolic components of New Zealand manuka honey,”, E. Mavric, S. Wittmann, G. Barth, and T. Henle, “Identification and quantification of methylglyoxal as the dominant antibacterial constituent of Manuka (, J. Atrott and T. Henle, “Methylglyoxal in Manuka honey—correlation with antibacterial properties,”, C. J. Adams, C. H. Boult, B. J. Deadman et al., “Isolation by HPLC and characterisation of the bioactive fraction of New Zealand manuka (, C. J. Adams, M. Manley-Harris, and P. C. Molan, “The origin of methylglyoxal in New Zealand manuka (, M. J. The antibacterial properties of honey should be examined on non-pathogenic bacteria, such as E. … The result showed that the South African honey varieties did not have strong bactericidal activity, and honey concentration above 25% was necessary for antibacterial activity, due to the osmolality and carbohydrate concentration [67]. It is produced enzymatically in honey and can be an important feature in its antibacterial activity. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. All honey samples as well as artificial honey were tested at a number of concentrations (1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (w/v)). The inhibine was identified as hydrogen peroxide, a main antibacterial compound in honeys [30]. This compound, and not hydrogen peroxide, is considered the main antibacterial agent in Manuka honey. Viper’s bugloss and Heather honey have also been studied and shown to have a much lower phenolic acid content, ranging between 132.17 ± 0.05 and 727.77 ± 0.23 mg/Kg [55]. Although a high concentration of sugar and a low water activity will stop the growth of many microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, studies have shown that often no effective bacterial inhibition occurs in the presence of “artificial” honey which can be prepared using a mixture of mono-and disaccharides at the same concentrations as those present in honey. The antimicrobial activity of this product is highly complex. observed that in northern India, honey moisture content ranged between 14.63 and 21.8% [26]. Moreover, another study demonstrated that a 10% concentration of Manuka honey was able to inhibit the formation of a biofilm of oral bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans, suggesting that honey might be able to reduce oral pathogens within dental plaque [77]. Furthermore, a low level of catalase would also mean a high level of hydrogen peroxide. Honey is an example of a naturally available product and is the only concentrated sweetener that can be found in nature. Three types of honey (lavender, red stringy bark, and Paterson’s curse) were γ-irradiated with 15 KGY, whereas the other three (Manuka, Rewa rewa, and Medihoney) were marketed as therapeutic honeys with antibacterial activity. Antibiotic resistance and chronic wound infections have increased the interest in antimicrobial treatments, including honey-based wound care products, and these have been registered with medical regulatory authorities as wound care agents in many countries, among others, the European Union, USA, and New Zealand. This experiment compares the effect of different types of honey on bacteria growing on agar plates. As early as the 1990s, phenolic acids and flavonoids were recognised as important components of the antibacterial substances in honey [52]. Furthermore, the concentration of MGO increases as Manuka honey matures and after storage (up to 120 days) at 37°C, which has been attributed to the nonenzymatic conversion of dihydroxyacetone to MGO during long-term storage [62]. Cells become dehydrated and unable to grow and proliferate in hypertonic sugar solution. Activity against P. aeruginosa was less common in Omani honey (38%) but more common in African honey (75%) [72]. In general, it is important to appreciate that the results will depend largely on the technique and scientific judgment, and this needs to be considered when comparing results using different methods [32]. Although the enzyme, glucose oxidase, is naturally present in honey, it is inactive in undiluted honey because of the low pH conditions [30]. Najla A. Albaridi, "Antibacterial Potency of Honey", International Journal of Microbiology, vol. They examined the pattern of use of 43 ingredients and tested their antibacterial properties. A. Adeniyi, and G. B. Mahady, “Use of natural products to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria,” in, G. B. Mahady, Y. Huang, B. J. Doyle, and T. Locklear, “Natural products as antibacterial agents,”, P. Molan, “Honey: antimicrobial actions and role in disease management,” in, M. S. Butler and A. D. Buss, “Natural products—the future scaffolds for novel antibiotics?”, M. D. Mandal and S. Mandal, “Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity,”, J. M. Alvarez-Suarez, S. Tulipani, D. Díaz et al., “Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several monofloral Cuban honeys and their correlation with color, polyphenol content and other chemical compounds,”, M. L. Sanz, M. Gonzalez, C. de Lorenzo, J. Sanz, and I. Martı́nez-Castro, “A contribution to the differentiation between nectar honey and honeydew honey,”, A. Bentabol Manzanares, Z. H. García, B. R. Galdón, E. R. Rodríguez, and C. D. Romero, “Differentiation of blossom and honeydew honeys using multivariate analysis on the physicochemical parameters and sugar composition,”, P. C. Molan, “The antibacterial activity of honey,”, P. J. Torley, R. P. G. Rutgers, B. D’Arcy, and B. R. Bhandari, “Effect of honey types and concentration on starch gelatinization,”, R. J. Weston, “The contribution of catalase and other natural products to the antibacterial activity of honey: a review,”, V. Kaskoniene, P. R. Venskutonis, and V. Ceksterytė, “Carbohydrate composition and electrical conductivity of different origin honeys from Lithuania,”, E. Anklam, “A review of the analytical methods to determine the geographical and botanical origin of honey,”, S. Ouchemoukh, P. Schweitzer, M. Bachir Bey, H. Djoudad-Kadji, and H. Louaileche, “HPLC sugar profiles of Algerian honeys,”, S. Bogdanov, “Honey composition. The water activity (aw) of honey ranges from 0.562 and 0.62, which means it provides a very low water availability to support the growth of any microorganisms, lower than the range where the growth of bacteria is completely inhibited (aw 0.94–0.99). Abstract. The TP contents ranged between 21.3 and 184.3 mg/kg and the main phenolic acid in all honey samples was gallic acid with 4.52, 4.11, 1.39, and 3.63 mg/100 g, respectively, for the different honey types mentioned above [57]. Snow and M. Manley-Harris, “On the nature of non-peroxide antibacterial activity in New Zealand manuka honey,”, K. Brudzynski and D. Miotto, “The relationship between the content of Maillard reaction-like products and bioactivity of Canadian honeys,”, V. M. French, R. A. Cooper, and P. C. Molan, “The antibacterial activity of honey against coagulase-negative staphylococci,”, N. J. Basson and S. R. Grobler, “Antimicrobial activity of two South African honeys produced from indigenous, H. T. Tan, R. A. Rahman, S. H. Gan et al., “The antibacterial properties of Malaysian tualang honey against wound and enteric microorganisms in comparison to manuka honey,”, S. M. Lin, P. C. Molan, and R. T. Cursons, “The in vitro susceptibility of, M. Shahid, “Honey: biological characteristics and potential role in disease management,” in, A. Jeddar, A. Kharsany, U. G. Ramsaroop, A. Bhamjee, I. Haffejee, and A. Moosa, “The antibacterial action of honey,”, A. The first explanation of the antibacterial activity of honey was reported in 1892 by Van Ketel [10]. It is evident that many different kinds of honey can be found around the world and as different regions will have different flora, this will influence the production and activity of different sorts of honey. In contrast, Agbaje et al., reported that 100% honey might not proffer a total solution to the current problems facing bacterial chemotherapy when compared to 0.2% ciprofloxacin and 2.5% tetracycline [80]. No inhibition was observed at 0.1% but the 1% concentration showed some inhibition with C. freundii, E. coli, M. phlei, and three species of Salmonella. Although it is believed that some of these enzymes come from nectar, [28] it is known that the α-amylase and α-glucosidase in honey comes from bee salivary secretions [29]. A. Niemira, and L. R. Beuchat, “Inhibitory activity of honey against foodborne pathogens as influenced by the presence of hydrogen peroxide and level of antioxidant power,”, J. Bertoncelj, U. Dobersek, M. Jamnik, and T. Golob, “Evaluation of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour of Slovenian honey,”, L. Estevinho, A. P. Pereira, L. Moreira, L. G. Dias, and E. Pereira, “Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of phenolic compounds extracts of Northeast Portugal honey,”, K. L. Allen, P. C. Molan, and G. M. Reid, “A survey of the antibacterial activity of some New Zealand honeys,”, V. Nanda, B. C. Sarkar, H. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bawa, “Physico-chemical properties and estimation of mineral content in honey produced from different plants in Northern India,”, T. Marshall and K. M. Williams, “Electrophoresis of honey: characterization of trace proteins from a complex biological matrix by silver staining,”, S. Serrano, R. Espejo, M. Villarejo, and M. L. Jodral, “Diastase and invertase activities in Andalusian honeys,”, P. Vit and P. Pulcini, “Diastase and invertase activities in Meliponini and Trigonini honeys from Venezuela,”, J. W. White Jr., M. H. Subers, and A. I. Schepartz, “The identification of inhibine, the antibacterial factor in honey, as hydrogen peroxide and its origin in a honey glucose-oxidase system,”, J. M. Andrews, “Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations,”, T. Patton, J. Barrett, J. Brennan, and N. Moran, “Use of a spectrophotometric bioassay for determination of microbial sensitivity to manuka honey,”, S. Bogdanov, “Nature and origin of the antibacterial substances in honey,”, P. E. Lusby, A. L. Coombes, and J. M. Wilkinson, “Bactericidal activity of different honeys against pathogenic bacteria,”, D. J. Willix, P. C. Molan, and C. G. Harfoot, “A comparison of the sensitivity of wound-infecting species of bacteria to the antibacterial activity of manuka honey and other honey,”, R. A. Cooper, P. C. Molan, and K. G. Harding, “Antibacterial activity of honey against strains of, M. S. Osato, S. G. Reddy, and D. Y. Graham, “Osmotic effect of honey on growth and viability of, M. Küçük, S. Kolaylı, Ş. Karaoğlu, E. Ulusoy, C. Baltacı, and F. Candan, “Biological activities and chemical composition of three honeys of different types from Anatolia,”, M. M. Cavia, M. A. Fernández-Muiño, S. R. Alonso-Torre, J. F. Huidobro, and M. T. Sancho, “Evolution of acidity of honeys from continental climates: influence of induced granulation,”, M. Ali, “Hydrogen peroxide therapies: recent insights into oxystatic and antimicrobial actions,”, L. M. Bang, C. Buntting, and P. Molan, “The effect of dilution on the rate of hydrogen peroxide production in honey and its implications for wound healing,”, S. Bogdanov, “Characterisation of antibacterial substances in honey,”, L. A. Roth, S. Kwan, and P. Sporns, “Use of a disc-assay system to detect oxytetracycline residues in honey,”, K. Brudzynski, K. Abubaker, L. Martin, and A. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) statistics, up to 80% of the population in some developed countries have used natural products in their primary health care [1]. A linear correlation between the honey content of hydrogen peroxide and the antibacterial activity of honeys has also been reported [49]. In addition, studying the effect of honey on the growth of bacteria such as S. aureus, which has a high tolerance of low water activity, gives clear evidence that the antibacterial activity of honey must also be attributed to other factors. evaluated the antibacterial effect of pure honey in vitro. Manuka honey is considered to have a unique factor (unique Manuka factor (UMF)) responsible for its antibacterial activity, and this is considered to be MGO. Honey is antibacterial and can prevent growth of most types of bacteria. In general, honeys might be classified to two groups: honeys whose activity is hydrogen-peroxide dependent (honeys of American, European, and some Asian origin) and honeys whose activity depends on the presence of methylglyoxal, like New Zealand Manuka honey. Honey type also has an effect on its phenolic content. Allen et al., tested 345 samples of honey against S. aureus in the agar well diffusion assay with phenol as the reference standard. More recently, honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on approximately 60 species of bacteria, including aerobes and anaerobes, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria [ 5 ]. Thus, part of the antimicrobial honey components are absorbed while still in the mouth which makes the consumption much more complete. It is clear that this feature is due to more than one factor. Antibacterial activity of Manuka honey has been documented for several bacterial pathogens, however there is no information on Clostridium difficile, an important nosocomial … In case of raw honey-2, the maximum inhibition as produced by extracts was observed against S. typhi (31.18 mm zone size)> P. aeruginosa(26.00 mm zone size)