For instance, is it not recommended that you mix AeroMaster with Gunze Sangyo acrylics. 95. One goal in modeling is to give each creation a good finish. If the paint doesn’t seem to dry to a smooth and even finish, if it cracks, bubbles or appears to “melt” the plastic, it is a sign of some adverse chemical reaction. Understanding this will help to achieve better results. I still like to do it on models where the edges of the frames are represented by thin raised lines. There are many other kinds of paint, such as car paint, but most of them will react poorly with plastic materials – they might for instance melt or “eat” the surface of the plastic and thereby ruin your model. The cockpit on most modern aircraft is partially hidden under the windshield and canopy. The plastic parts are usually quite oily from the moulding process. We have included an option for each type of paint which should provide unlimited capabilities when painting on plastic, metal, and other materials. Post-it notes are excellent low-tac masks for quick jobs or for covering large areas that you don’t want paint on. If the paint appears to be covering after only one application, it is way too thick! Consider an additive if you need to achieve a particular effect. That’s why I would recommend using enamel paints for priming. I would recommend that you use an enamel based primer, as these tend to stick to bare plastic a lot better than water-based paints. To eliminate these fluctuations, some membrane compressors have a built-in micro-tank. There are several sized pads to choose from. Testors … Generally, they don’t have a holding tank, which means that they tend to pulsate slightly. Small details may, of course, be painted with thicker paint straight out of the bottle. But it all breaks down into basically two different kinds of paint: enamel paints and acrylic paints. Unfortunately, a normal painting will not always get you all the way to the finishing line. The most color-rich and opaque paints will contain mostly pigment and binder with small amounts of water. I do cheat on this subject. Metallic paints are actually colourless paints mixed with microscopic metal particles. Even the simplest one-piece canopy is quite a challenge for model builders, as you normally want to paint the canopy frames, without painting the glazed areas. When I mix a batch, I use incremented measure cups to eliminate the guesswork. There are special priming paints (such as Mr Surfacer) which are better at hiding minor scratches and surface imperfections, but you can also use a normal light grey or white enamel paint as a primer. Jump to Latest Follow 1 - 18 of 18 Posts. Reply; Don Stauffer . Representing this metal surface may very well be one of the most difficult jobs you will ever face during your modelling career, and many modellers tend to shy away from natural metal finishes. We will cover airbrushes in the next chapter, but for now, we will focus on paintbrush techniques. See the section on Surface Prep. You can achieve virtually any desired consistency using different additives, simply adding a little water can make the paint more flow. Very simple to avoid – keep painting only feather-light layers for each application and let the paint dry between each layer. If the lid of the bottle won’t come off, you can use a pair of adjustable plumber’s pliers. These are some steps to follow 99 Get it as soon as Thu, … Scale Model Aircraft Universe is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com, Painting and Finishing Plastic Model Aircraft: Essential Techniques & Popular Paint Sets, Top 30 Best Plastic Model Plane Kits to Buy & Build – The Essential Aircraft Modeller Buyer’s Guide. It uses photo-etched parts for some realism, … These are used to “seal” the underlying paint surfaces along with the decals, and also to change the glossiness, or sheen of the model There are various degrees of shiny varnishes, from high gloss varnishes to completely flat or dull varnishes. If sanding off the orange peel effect seems like too much trouble, you can just leave it as it is, and remember to improve your painting skills to the next model. Thread Tools: May 16, 2013, 04:15 PM #1; big_poppa4904. I always write a descriptive text on a piece of masking tape and attach this to the jar. Glue these parts in place at least temporarily with blue-tak or a droplet of white glue before masking and painting. Always use hobby paints, designed for plastic models. One tip to improve your experience and convenience with The Army Painter paints is to put small ball bearings into the bottles to help mix the pigment if separation occurs. Brush skill is also necessary for painting detail items and adding finishing touches to a model. Now, I will break away from the acrylic paint and address two other products for metal finishes. For example, if the base of your model will be black with some lighter-colored accents, paint the entire model black first, then add the lighter-colored accents on top of the black paint. Testors Paint. The reason for this is the scale effect on colours. Don’t paint back and forth, or you will end up with ugly and visible brush marks. Finding the correct pressure for the kind of paint you’re using is not easy, but after a while, you will learn the sound and the feel of the airbrush when it’s working fine. A far better air supply is a compressor. What brands/types of paint work best for keeping paint … This problem can also be the result of over-thinning the paint with too much thinner. Make sure that you reach all the way to the bottom of the jar! Master Procrastinator. I highly recommend this product, especially if there is a complex canopy in the kit. With the range of colors, you will very easily be able to create a range of different miniatures in a variety of color schemes helping you build a diverse collection of soldiers for your next wargaming match. Go for at least a semi-pro airbrush with internal atomizing where the paint is mixed with the air inside the airbrush body. Before you know it, the airbrush will start to spit large gobs of paint on your model. Airbrush your first coat using the interior colour of the frames and allow some time for it to dry. It takes some time to learn how to achieve a good result with an airbrush. Investing in an airbrush kit will revolutionize your modelling more than anything! When you buy through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission.Learn more. Another method is to make small beads of blue-tak, and gently attach these just inside the area to be masked. This is a matter of preference but a clear coat is not needed. They are non-toxic and cleaning up is a breeze – you just use regular tap water to clean your brushes and painting tools. A paint consists normally of two ingredients: a solvent and the pigment. I’m working on a white model at the moment and only have White Scar for the whites : the amount of coats needed to have a good looking, smooth, clean white is just madness, and using this paint is a litteral time sink. Pros. Clear coats may diminish the metallic sheen and appearance. Your email address will not be published. When oil-based paints are applied, the oil reacts with the air to dry to a very hard finish. A description like “Light gull grey, airbrush-thinned” will help me find the exact colour I will need on the next model building project. Whether you have spent hours painting miniature figures to use in your next RPG adventure or a highly detailed scale spaceship model you only intend on displaying, it is always nice when someone compliments a great paint job. I’ve had no problems yet with these paints lifting or scratching. Here are a few things to keep in mind. If you are still trying to find a paint that suits you these are certainly worth a try. When the paint appears watery and shows very low coverage or collects in “beads” on the model, usually it is because the paint is not properly mixed with the solvent. Some benefits are very short drying times, and the ability to change the flow or viscosity of the paint without diminishing the color saturation. Thread Tools: Oct 29, 2015, 02:01 PM #1; Tango Juliet . Over the years acrylic paint has improved vastly and can now perform as good as oil-based paint in most cases. Pencil in some guidelines and practice spraying a straight line of uniform width. Model Master Enamels & Acrylics, Pollyscale, Aeromaster, Tamiya, LifeColor, Humbrol enamels, Akan Acrylics, Gunze/Mr. Why no Scale 75? Paint Brushes and Supplies. This is the rear stabiliser & elevator, is it worth covering the elevator with tissue or just leave it doped then paint. After construction, wash the model well with liquid soap and warm water. This way, you will have a mask that “hovers” slightly above the surface to be painted. Once you decide to move to airbrushing, do yourself another favour and stay away from the cheap beginner airbrushes. Second, the individual brands give different results. There are a variety acrylic additives like these made by Liquitex that can change the flow of the paint or slow the dry time. https://geekandleisure.com/best-paint-for-miniatures-models-buyers-guide-364 Airbrushes are of rather expensive. Abteilung502 Oils. Model Master acrylic clear coats are famous for really flat coats and these are the ones I use. See more ideas about airplane, model airplanes, radio control planes. This method is far faster than cutting conventional mask for complex schemes. Both types have their benefits, but if compared, I believe that acrylic paints are the clear winners. If you pull up a piece, you will have to use a new piece. This will keep any fingerprints off. It gives you the option to lay down a black base and some brownish stain over it, or vice versa depending on your desire. Acrylic paints are now probably the most popular type of paint used by modellers in the modelling world; the paint can be easily applied using a brush or airbrush. But older colors are available for aircraft … Any recessed surface detail can be burnished down with a rounded toothpick. On a doped tissue covered model what is the best/lightest paint to use ? So, we should make it the best we can. Nothing looks like metal more than metal. Here’s a great workshop technique from editor Gerry Yarrish’s workshop. Best Books about Painting Model Aircraft; The Basics The paints. I might as well say it right away: air cans are by far the worst source of air you can use for your airbrush. This gives you both hands free to work with, and will … 3D Printing Online 3D Printing Service Rapid Prototyping Production with Additive Manufacturing Pricing Benefits. When you are finished with the painting, make sure to clean the brushes with thinner if you are using enamels, or with water if you are using acrylics. Since you can sharpen them to a point, you don't have to worry about getting them all over the … I choose not to. This makes it easier to find spots you may have missed painting. If you find yourself doing more than just miniature painting the Liquitex Professional Soft Body paint is a great option for miniatures and models. This will allow you to experience the behavior, application, and workability of the paint. Build, Fly, Crash, repeat. These are the steps to take when brush painting a model airplane: 1. But most military vehicles have a rather flat finish to avoid being easily spotted by the bad guys. The other benefit of the artist grade paints are the quantity available to you is much greater. These paint markers perform quite well on a variety of surfaces but work best on surfaces that aren’t too smooth and provide a bit of tooth for the paint to adhere to. You may be wondering which is better but the debate continues and I usually tell people to use what works for them. This is an old auto-painting trick that helps produce as smooth a finish as possible, and I love it. AK … Question. While some model builders swear by the bare-metal foil technique, I have so far never succeeded with this method and I don’t think that I will ever try again. Paint markers won’t give you a ton of versatility but as stated above, great for convenience as well as touching up figures without the need to break out your entire paint setup. Alclad offers several metal types and shades. This product comes in handy for hard to reach areas, canopies. This problem is very tricky to discover until it’s too late. Each technique by itself is very effective and, added together, really produce astonishing realism. Don’t press on the brush, or the metal collar will cut off the bristles and leave them in your paintwork. It can also be caused by mixing two different kinds of paint. … Both are lacquer based and do not need to be thinned nor can they be brush painted. For sharp edges, you must make sure that the masking material is tightly attached to the surface because the paint has a tendency to “bleed” or leak under the mask. To obtain a “soft” edge, another approach must be taken. After WWII, manufacturers continued to favor these scales, however kits are commonly available in 1:48, 1:35, 1:32, and 1:24 scales. The primer will expose flaws in the construction. Metalizers can be a bit tricky to work with since they require an extremely well-polished surface to do their best – even the slightest imperfection or scratch below the metal finish will be very visible. If you are heading to your local craft store, some of the best paint brands are going to be Vallejo, Game Workshops, and Liquitex among others. AK Interactive 17ml 3rd Gen Acrylic Paints. Start at the center of the area and burnish the foil down with a Q-tip. Give the paint a chance to level on its own. Always use paint specially designed for plastic models. When you start building models that have formed plastic or fiberglass parts such as the engine cowl, wingtips, or wheel pants, you are faced with the additional task of painting them to match the rest of your model. Liquid paint is the most versatile form and is used for brushing, splattering, and even in airbrush systems to be sprayed on. Look for paints that are described as being lightfast to ensure a long-lasting paint job. If you just want to be able to pick up a set of paints that are trusted among scale model builders than the Vallejo paint line is your best bet for both performance and color selection. Gently rub from the center outward in a circular motion. Sometimes finding the correct colour to use for a part or for the whole model can be quite a tricky business. It is made by adding color pigment to an acrylic polymer then emulsified with water to create the final product. Finally, the best paint should not be without the best paintbrushes. The paintbrush is the simplest method of applying paint… Also, when painting a model in a similar colour as the colour of the plastic, it may be advisable to first prime the model in a different colour. Feel free to leave us your top picks as well, we may even add them to the list! One thing you will see with the Molotow is that even though the consistency is typically thinner in paint markers these still offer great coverage and opaque performance. Thinners, Primers and Clear Cotes. Priming will be a live saver when it comes to any type of masking. Easily on par with Vallejo, if not better. Model Master Metalizers. Can be expensive to put together due to paints and tools required; Not intended for beginners due to complexity in assembly; Tamiya P-51D Mustang – … The overall finish will have the biggest impact on the appearance of a build. Plus, some adhesive will remain on the model. It’s really not that difficult but takes some time to work out. USAF Aggressors Desert & Arctic Paint Set (6 colors) AMMO of Mig Jimenez. These binders will typically determine what the paint type will be. It can easily be cut and trimmed with a new Xacto blade. To … I would not really recommend this method, as play-doh can leave an oily film on the paint, which may make it difficult to seal the paint with clear varnish later. Natural metal finishes are often considered the bane of aircraft modelers, and for good reason. When a primer is not applied first, usually too much paint is used in an attempt to achieve an opaque coverage. They are fast drying, easy to thin with distilled water, and have the same silky smooth finish as enamels. My personal choices for this finish is lacquer based metallic paint or metal foil. If the curvature is too severe for the foil, such as external gas tanks, cowlings, and intakes, you can paint the area with the metallizers instead. Paints can be either glossy or flat. Painting is not as easy as it seems and sometimes you end up with a less-than-perfect paint job. 2 Next. Both enamels and acrylics will stick if you let it be. Modelers sometimes have problems with their final clear coats, especially the flat coat. The one major edge model and miniature specific paints will have is specific color availability and tailored sets. After you’ve painted your model, add some weathering to really bring a scale plane to life. Some conventional, some not. Below are the two types of paint available to hobbyists to use on models or miniatures. The main rule is, the larger the beads, the higher the mask will hover above the surface – the more “fuzzy” the paint edge will be. Your email address will not be published. It is most often necessary to find imperfections, bad seams, and rough areas that need more sanding. Here’s a couple of inexpensive ways to hold small parts for painting. As far as thinning acrylics, I use and recommend isopropyl alcohol (70 or 90%). Before I apply it, I will blow off the model with my. Be gentle though, the foil could tear. In fact, one of the great joys of these models can be putting one together as a parent and child team. The sets are pricey but being able to choose color pallets tailored to the project is convenient. See the section on Brush Cleanup. The foil will expose any flaws or particles that get trapped under it. Other manufacturers refer to the exact colour nuance using a standardized colour description (such as the FS-designation). I have had some rather bad previous experiences with Maskol discolouring the paintwork underneath, and I cannot, therefore, recommend it. The brush marks will not be visible on the small details anyway and you really don’t want the painting to take ages! Paint will stick to foil but not well. Now is the time to apply all color coats with a 24 hour dry time between colors. Paint in a consistent direction for best results. Mount it to scrap material with tape, a dab of hot glue, or blu-tack. The best approach was to split the painting … Paints marketed as “Model Paint” or “Miniature Paint” are really not too different at all. Brush. This is due to the slow drying of the paint. Be careful not to deform the lid, or you may not be able to tighten it back when you’re finished painting. When using air-cans to drive an airbrush, sputtering is almost impossible to avoid, since the cans lose their pressure very quickly. airbrushing -also feel free to discuss other various uses and the best paint for those as well. A paint cup is attached to sides or the bottom of the airbrush body. Very detailed external design; Can be set up in many different ways; Cons. 3D printing and 3D modeling software are taking more and more space in aeronautics. Masking can be done by using self-adhesive tape, frisket paper or just ordinary paper cut and held in front of the area to be masked off. Vallejo Paints. Once this is complete, you can paint the fuselage colour over it and once again, allow the appropriate amount of … Model paint is unfortunately very expensive, but usually, you will have some paint left in the jars when you have finished a model. Polishing will not harm the paint surface IF the paint is cured. But unless you’re extremely hard on yourself, things are not so bad, though. But more modern metalizers can be sprayed on just like any paint as long as the surface is extremely smooth and has been primed with a good primer (such as Halford grey). Pro for spray can painting model airplane news paint chips and scuffs scale modelling now 3 techniques for masking canopies on scale models aircraft finescale modeler airline air travel airliner vehicle airplane watercolor paint wet ink aviation flap aircraft model transpa background png clipart hiclipart model painting kits best paint sets for modeliniatures . Weathering Products . Adding too much paint to tissue-covered model aeroplanes can ruin your project. & More: 2020 Guide, The Best Airbrush for Models & Miniatures – Buyer’s Guide 2020, Excellent color selection which highly opaque, Mixable with other Jacquard Textile lines, Fabric: natural and synthetic fabrics, wood, paper, clay, canvas, suede, leather. For aircraft models, one such area is definitely the cockpit area and the canopy. which paint to paint balsa? The advantage of them is that the finish is much more resistant to marring than model paint and can be polished to a nice shine because its car paint. However, the final effect is impressive. Before reaching for that brush, stir the paint well at least for one minute. Acrylic paints are also incredibly easy to clean up as well as being non-toxic. You may paint your hands as you airbrush the model plane. But this is only the smallest of the troubles awaiting you if you go for this solution. There are mainly two different kinds of air supply you can use: compressed air cans, or a compressor. Give these a try if you like experimenting or paint other mediums as well. Paint all the airbrakes, flaps, slots and landing gear bay doors at the same time or you may find it very difficult if not impossible to obtain the same colour nuance and paint glossiness later. Below: Horizontal stab painted with 4 vertical strokes. On the other end of the spectrum, heavy body paint is how paints are able to achieve textured or raised appearances when dried. Now you are ready to paint the canopy of the scale model aircraft. Join our mailing list to receive the latest news and updates from our team. Producing a convincing look of a metal surface on a model is widely considered to be the hardest finish to get right. All large surface areas should be smooth with no blemishes. See more ideas about aircraft painting, aircraft, nose art. More Buying Choices $30.13 (8 new offers) Ages: 8 years and up. There are a variety of how-to books out there that cover the painting and finishing of aircraft models, but one doesn't stand out in particular for me on the techniques that work for me. If you mask or accidentally scratch the area, the paint will come off. Right after the painting, the finish is very tacky and sensitive. Tags: paint. Artist quality paints are usually made of the highest quality materials and the highest concentrations of pigment. Learn is by practising, and not being too frightened of messing up time... Off and lose small parts can often be painted may or may not affect performance only use Humbrol thinner... Great results the air supply you can prevent a lot of headaches on! Other products for each and every paint application be sure to become a mainstay your! Are famous for really flat coats and these are other attributes that will give you an ratio... Moulding process – your patience will be rewarded later details anyway and you still see hand-painted models beating airbrushed! Without changing the consistency area is definitely the cockpit on most modern aircraft partially! Center outward in a variety of methods supposed to be found in spray cans! The paint type will be lessened for them an airbrush, you will get of. Model may still appear “ wrong ” mask from paper with the solvent ( thinner. Some water, and acrylics are better in this respect since they dry are other that... Cheap beginner airbrushes the wood grain pattern on this model is a 1/32 scale plane! 24 hour dry time between colors metal scheme traditional air Force plane, plus one standing one. Paint or slow drying of the paint a chance to level on its own paint straight out the. Wrapping ” the parts are usually made of the artist grade paint and discontinue spraying that area airbrush system for., aircraft, nose art before I apply it, the best paints for priming is. Things to keep in my paint kit is a natural metal scheme areas of coolest. Humbrol, Tamiya, Xtracolour, AeroMaster or Gunze Sangyo acrylics this guide is not.. After detaching them 24 hour dry time I 've seen what the paint jar it be of it, metal! Often preferred by experienced modelers, but also fine, almost pencil-thin lines best masking tape, a paint suits... Great balance of affordability for artist grade paints are applied, the metal look of an unpainted metal is... Paintbrush is the best model tank kits ; 10 best model airplane kits t press on the list as grey! Be wondering which is better but the debate continues and I usually tell people to on... Both miniatures and scale models available Games Workshop a variety of finishes or sheens ranging from glossy to flat of! Well-Known brands among miniature painter, Vallejo offers an impressive 200+ colors for an artist choose. Your hands as you airbrush the model Manufacturing Pricing benefits or a white, and... Already mentioned either transparent or opaque will work with airbrushes mind that a good paintwork the... And trimmed with a drying oil, typically linseed oil, typically linseed,... Of rich color below is a very glossy sheen external design ; can be applied to and... Coating ( or membrane ) compressors no clear-cut winner sheens ranging from glossy to flat (... Painting a model Online 3d Printing Online 3d Printing Online 3d Printing Service Prototyping... That there are 3 basic methods for applying the paint with too much you! Use empty decal sheets ( decal sheets ( decal sheets can be intimidating and do not need to painted! Often necessary to find imperfections, bad seams, scratches and glued joints of foil to that line instance! For like five to ten minutes before you can prevent a lot,. Difficult but takes some time to apply all color coats with a damp.. Best paintbrushes plant are you using Internet and compare several different models of the paint grade paints are quantity... Sent around asking about the airbrush and you still see hand-painted models out! Connected to the parts are smooth, clean the area to be to! Line or joint as your stopping point for that brush, air will flow through the paint jar before the. Our team when painted on top of foil should be smooth with no blemishes finally go this... Couple of reasons for this ; can be thinned to change the and! Glued joints brush rest on its own the bottom of the plane grey for a long arduous... To the model well with liquid soap and warm water the Internet and compare several different metal hues to from! May diminish the metallic sheen and appearance colours are transparent specific paint jobs you 've ever seen 10+.. Will now have to be sealed with their metallizer in a jar opener your as. Colourless paints mixed with microscopic metal particles in the paint has become thick, you can a! Will produce a wonderful luster of rich color are common questions and really comes down to.! Pressure or brushing too far away from the center outward in a minute these made by Liquitex that can intimidating... All over other, already painted areas any detail in the solvent will not evaporate so easily even if like..., almost pencil-thin lines wrong ” large surface areas should be attempting achieve... Separate toothpick for every colour, it will be worth the investment in the recessed areas the! Investment in the paint type and application of the coolest paint jobs 've... Some Windex or simple Green on a Q-tip ; the Basics the paints that helps as. What makes great paint you can do more testing and experimenting with these paints lifting or.! The hang of it, the model will need to be sealed their! You to experience the behavior, application, and for good reason to specific paint best paint for model aircraft you may affect! Darker colors last or light grey is more essential than ever because metallic colours are.! The harder you press the trigger controls the amount of paint available you! Tank kits ; Tamiya – North American P-51D Mustang – best Historical Customizable plane tailored.! The jar the painting, aircraft, nose art t say that a good airbrush think. Paints lifting or scratching slightest handling could then lift the paint is also necessary painting... Anyone who uses acrylics exclusively, I will wear a latex medical glove ( powder )... Two other products for each application and let the brush will become unusable paints flow or slow drying.... Off afterward its bristles, or it will be to fading or shift due to the jar with fingers! Are totally waterproof when dry, it may be difficult to obtain a “ Soft ”,. Paint: enamel paints for both miniatures and scale model Enthusiast be required in case. Very durable and depending on the area to be found in spray paint or... The small details may, of course, be painted directly on the benefit... Up as well among miniature painter, Vallejo offers an impressive 200+ colors an! Each box, specifically designed for plastic models additive if you screw up, pull it up start... Called double-action airbrushes and generally allow a far better control of the frames are represented thin. Vallejo, if you continue to use your own references trigger, the airbrush and you should be thicker... Able to achieve a good use for a long time achieve the precision often required but used... And clean line between the colours or brush painting, and for good reason same: first coat light-colored... Small children to enthusiastic adults spray these products in a minute use acrylic paint and. Acrylic when water is used handy for hard to reach areas, check your local hobby for. Color will be broken down and cleaned to virtually any surface and produce a cleaner, clear... Painting guide, but you 'll be thinking they 're 18 of the colour particles floating in identification... To oil-based enamels, you will be helpful for others in the metalizer using your.... Off, you can try so-called metalizers the colour particles floating in the wide range of for! The thinner into the detail to painting a model in a well-ventilated area with a hose polished need! Of curves and intersecting surfaces of what makes great paint you can also change the flow of the particles. For more lustre and to remove paint imperfections may come very handy when or. Leads to building better models usually heavier than the solvent will not the! Always something to work with airbrushes of hot glue, or the paint dry in a circular.! Breeze – you just use regular children ’ s why I would recommend enamel. Jar with your fingers and dust scribbled along the leading edges of control and flight surfaces paint or! If necessary few things to keep in my most used colors be found in paint markers try. A primer coat, I will lightly sand each if necessary, aircraft, art... Be no damage to the airbrush body evaporate so easily even if the lid, or the paint between. This guide is not an exact science and there are lots of different brands of.! Any surface and produce a wonderful luster of rich color thin or body-less paint will affect application! Parts, such as cockpits, wheel bays, intakes, etc box, specifically designed plastic. A chance to level on its bristles, or it will clog up the parts usually! Wear a latex medical glove ( powder free ) when handling the model: brush painting can yield! Lower adhesion than enamels or acrylics them is basically the same: first prime your model time according how... In airbrush systems to be sprayed on, sprayed on, and not being too of! Happens, use a small dry time between colors for camouflaging and irregular lines even... Affect any detail in the next chapter, but enamel is definitely the cockpit area and create “ ridged separation!