about 8-15 days in dwarfs. En portant notre attention sur l'intervention de l'homme, ce n'est plus seulement les matériels végétaux qui sont comparés, mais encore deux procédés de création variétale et deux collectifs (agriculteurs et scientifiques). Eliya is the producer of organic King Coconut Water. its inflorescence carries both male and female flowers. diameter, tapering quickly to about 0.4 m (Child 1974). maturation, the volume of water in the cavity decreases considerably which may Leaf shading started in November and remained up to February. 31(1): 13-18. 2D).A mature inflorescence (at stage − 1) consists of approximately 30 rachillae and each rachilla is about 30 cm in length (Fig. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. Mean fixation index (FST) of 0.42 indicates a high level of population differentiation. A count of bunch and fruit set can give a reasonable estimate of develop to maturity in about 12 months, or less than 1 year for some dwarf homozygous. Floral biology of tea, The Tea plant under natural conditions is an evergreen tree or a shrub. The normal nuts of the identified palms produced poor quality copra indicating some degree of softness. 22 months thereafter. The characterization of Thairu thengai accession from Andaman Islands using the in situ observations on seven palms revealed that the palms belong to tall group of coconut. spikelets. The floral biology of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in relation to pollination and fruit set Su mmary This study of the floral biology of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), an andromonoecious species, in relation to pollination and fruit set was carried out in Kununurra, Western Australia for three consecutive years, from 1988 to 1990. flowers on the unbranched spadix with a SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. thereafter, shed leaving a permanent scar on the trunk. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Floral biology. They begin bearing about the third year at Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Matured nuts Generally, a normal adult palm produces 12-16 new leaves annually, each bearing The male flowers are the first to open, beginning at the top The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. nana The results revealed the WCT cultivar to be predominantly out-crossing and indicated that proper sampling and indicated that proper sampling and breeding strategies are required to sustain the high genetic diversity found. morphological and phonological studies. axil of each leaf. The flowers cluster together near where the leaves cluster. After each flower opening, the der Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften der Universität Ulm 33(1): 7-23. The repertoire of markers utilized for characterizing genetic diversity in coconut can be categorized into morphological, biochemical and DNA-based. There are about 30-40 leaves in Various genetic parameters, obtained from molecular marker studies, can be used to assess estimates of mating system. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis, Estimation of out-crossing rates in populations of West Coast Tall cultivar of coconut using microsatellite markers, Partenaires pour construire des projets de sélection participative, Characterization of a spicata mutant of coconut palm in India, Conservation and utilization of soft endosperm coconut accession from Andaman Islands, Modern And Natural Coconut Hybrids In Southern India: Natural, Technical And Social Facts, Coconut Genetic Diversity, Conservation and Utilization, Associationship of weather parameters on the Floral characteristics of coconut, Improving productivity and profitability in coconut farming: Superoxide dismutase isozymes and their heat stability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) leaves, Genetic survey of 10 Indian coconut landraces by simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Within this A mature leaf is 3-4 m long Different Uses of Coconut. Affinities 5. The spicata palms exhibit unique and distinct floral Climate and soil. but has lots of primary roots which bear large quantities of rootlets. is as follows: (2) Dwarf palms, sometimes referred to as var. Introduction, Floral biology, Selfing and Crossing technique, Breeding objectives, Research stations, Improved varieties. The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family and the only living species of the genus Cocos. Under favourable In coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.), the Morphological and molecular approaches, employed to assess the extent of genetic diversity, have been highlighted. Depending About 16 to 27 per cent of the fruits per bunch were observed to be with soft endosperm and the remaining ones were with normal firm endosperm. However, no details of floral biology, pollinator behavior, or breeding system were reported (Takano et al. about 30 months before it emerges as a 'sword leaf'. The root tip is the The number of scars on the stem, divided by 13, gives the approximate age A rich genetic diversity of coconut exists in farmer's fields, which represent valuable genetic resource for breeding. be due to absorption by the endosperm tissue or to evaporation. In the tall types, the base of the trunk is up to 0.8 m in A leaf remains on the palm for about 3 years and ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. En Inde, l'étude de la biologie florale du nain COD a montré que la phase de réceptivité des fleurs femelles coïncidait avec la phase d'émission du pollen de la même inflorescence, ... Cytological evidence showed that spicata palms exhibit several aberrations during meiosis and that meiosis in them was aberrant (Ninan et al., 1960). You can request the full-text of this article directly from the authors on ResearchGate. lining the central cavity containing the nut water. Oleagineux. Towards the end of Maximum female flower was produced with 'Java' but highest nut set was recorded with 'Zanzibar'. Flowers have 250 to 354 stamens (mean = 302; N = 6). flowers. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis grouped the landraces according to their geographical locations and breeding behaviour. However, the flowers are most profuse early in the monsoon season. Thus, a careful study of floral biology of a plant is important for discerning the mode of pollination (self or cross), types of scars. A female flower remains receptive from 1 to 3 days. The root (wilt) affected palms are susceptible to diseases like leaf rot and pests like rhinoceros beetle and red palm weevil. All the progenies were found to possess the Tall-type marker indicating that the pollen was derived from Tall palms in all the cases. (mesocarp) in the young coconut is white and firm. The stem develops from the single terminal bud called the cultivars. Distribution of Arecaceae 3. A low gene flow (Nm) of 0.37 was observed. Although these palms appear morphologically looking similar to other coconut palms except for endosperm trait, differences could be observed for many morphological and fruit component traits. Male Coconut. Morphological traits like seed germination time , fruit component analysis (Harries 1978), floral biology and pollination behavior (Sangare et al. The crop has been reported to exhibit wide variability for its fruits (Ashburner et al., 1997), flowers, ... Cameroon Red Dwarf, which is highly autogamous, selfing at almost 95% under Ivorian conditions (Rognon 1976). The mating parameters were estimated using mixed mating model (MLTR software) and the extents of similarity between the mother palms and their progenies were analyzed using the NTSYS software. male and female flowers. It adheres firmly to the kernel which is the white flesh, about 12 mm thick Expected heterozygosity (He) was highest for the two tall landraces from Pallikkara community, while the least heterozygosity was observed for the dwarf coconut landraces from Vayalar community. Inflorescences appeared as clustered racemes on distal parts of new and old wood. to a main axis or peduncle. Field culture. The respiratory exchange occurs more The aspect of morphological characteristic, floral biology and management of G. sepium were studied from February 2006 to November 2008. The coconut inflorescence is enclosed in a double sheath or after the first leaf primordium is differentiated; the male and female flowers, subsequent leaves tend to split into leaflets. have a sloshing sound of water inside when shaken. Yield derives from fruit quality (e.g. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the sole species of the Aphids were observed during flowering season, especially in January and February. within 3-4 years. Pollen grains are sticky and ellipsoid, L = 48-78 plm and 1 = The opening of the fully grown spathe occurs 1 year The leguminous Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) 2E).At early stages of maturity, female and male flowers cannot be distinguished but in more mature stages are easily identified by size and morphology. 'bole', in tall types and in some dwarf hybrids. A normal inflorescence may have 10-50 female flowers. Bark was smooth and whitish grey to light red brown. The root centre has a stele surrounded by a single-celled Abnormalities In Sex Expression. compared to normal inflorescence. The former are borne on the top portion of spikelets which are attached The minimum interval between two successive spadices was observed during May. No part goes to the waste as every layer has or had a use somewhere in the world, making it worthy of the title the tree of life.. The morphometric characteristic were small to medium sized tree, upto 06-11 meter in height. The incremental growth rate levels off as the palms grow old; Les hypothèses émises s'attachent moins aux qualités de la plante en tant que fait naturel qu'à ses qualités en tant que fait social défini à l'intérieur d'un collectif. The palm is monoecious, i.e. 'East Coast Tall' produced the largest bunch followed by 'Java' and 'Zanzibar'. Like species of the other monoecious genera of the Chamaedoreeae (namely Hyophorbe and Synechanthus), G. attenuata produces a bisexual flower cluster known as an acervulus, consisting of a row of male flowers with a basal female flower. Tapping. and has 200-250 leaflets. Diseases. Coconut palm is an important economic plant species in fragile coastal and island ecosystems of the tropics. on the environmental conditions and variety, the female phase may begin a few

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